Located 25 kilometers southeast of Dunhuang City, Gansu Province, China, Mogao Grottoes are situated on a cliff at the foot of Mingsha Mountain, commonly known as Qianfo Cave, which faces the Louquan River and is 1680 meters long and 50 meters high. The caves are scattered, with up to five floors up and down.
Mogao Grottoes was built in the pre-Qin period of the Sixteen Kingdoms. After the construction of the Sixteen Kingdoms, the Northern Dynasty, the Sui, the Tang, the Five Dynasties, the Western Xia and the Yuan Dynasties, it has formed a huge scale. There are 735 caves, 45,000 square meters of murals and 2415 clay sculptures. It is the largest and richest Buddhist art sacred place in the world. Since modern times, more than 50,000 ancient cultural relics have been found in the Tibetan Scripture cave. From this, Dunhuang Studies, a discipline specializing in Tibetan Scripture cave classics and Dunhuang art, has been derived. Mogao Grottoes are divided into two regions, north and south. There are 492 Grottoes with murals and statues, including 45,000 square meters of murals, 2,415 clay painted sculptures, 5 wooden eaves in Tang and Song Dynasties, and thousands of lotus style stones and floor tiles.
The construction of Dunhuang grottoes and its historical process, the long history of Dunhuang, the local influential clans and surnames, and the relationship between Dunhuang and the surrounding ethnic groups and the Western Regions are not or seldom recorded in history. There are tens of thousands of portraits of providers in Dunhuang Grottoes, of which more than 1,000 have titles and titles. Understanding many historical conditions and clues can help us to understand the Buddhist thoughts, sects, beliefs, dissemination of ancient Dunhuang and Hexi Corridor, the integration of Buddhism and Chinese traditional culture, the process of Buddhism's sinicization, and so on.