Shadow Puppets has a long history in China. As a folk art form, it is called "the earliest movie in the world" and "the predecessor of Chinese drama". Shaanxi is known as the "History Museum". Shaanxi shadow play originated before the Han Dynasty, and its heyday was in the Tang Dynasty. The shadow play has a beautiful shape and skilled performance. In the Northern Song Dynasty, shadow play was still a "plain paper carving cluster". In the Southern Song Dynasty, it was changed to leather carving shadow and painted in color.
Shaanxi shadow puppet
Shadow Puppets is a kind of drama form that uses animal skin or cardboard to cut images and uses light to illuminate the cut images to perform stories. Its popular range is very wide, and various shadow Puppets are formed due to the different voices played in different places. Shadow Puppets also exist in Gansu, Shanxi, Ningxia, Hebei, Hubei, Zhejiang and other places in China, but the most popular one is Shaanxi. Shaanxi shadow Puppets is the representative of Western China shadow Puppets. Qinchuan is a land of outstanding people. People on the Loess Plateau use their unique social habits to breed Shaanxi shadow Puppets, which is also deeply branded with the shadow of the loess land. Shaanxi shadow Puppets has a unique modeling style. In order to adapt to the screen and shadow forms of Shaanxi shadow Puppets, Shaanxi shadow Puppets has formed a complete aesthetic model. Shaanxi shadow Puppet has the following four characteristics for the modeling of characters.
- Shaanxi shadow puppet figure modeling planarization:
For the design of the character, the side image is generally used, and the face of the character image accounts for 50% or 70% of the whole image.
- Shaanxi shadow puppet figure modeling art:
Shaanxi shadow puppet is designed by the combination of abstraction and realism. The costumes and faces of the characters are vivid, exaggerated, humorous and romantic. Shaanxi shadow puppets are portrayed with line hollowing. Shaanxi shadow puppets are simple in color and plain in color. Under the back light of Shaanxi shadow puppet, the visual effect is clear and gorgeous.
- Shaanxi shadow puppet figure cartoon:
Shaanxi shadow puppet characters are generally composed of 11 parts: head, upper body, lower body, two legs, two upper arms, two lower arms and two hands. They can do mechanical dynamic performance by human manipulation. The proportion of human body is usually the length of upper body and arms, so as to benefit the performance effect of Shaanxi shadow play.
- Dramatization of Shaanxi shadow puppet characters:
Shaanxi shadow puppet character modeling is designed according to the mode of opera Sheng, Dan, Jing and ugliness. Originating from and surpassing stage drama.
Shaanxi shadow puppet is simple and decorative, but also has exquisite artistic characteristics. The outline of Shaanxi shadow puppet figure modeling is summarized as a whole. The lines are beautiful, vivid, powerful and rhymed. The various parts of shadow puppet figures, props and scenery are often decorated with different patterns and patterns. The overall effect is rich but not redundant, concise but not empty. Each image is not only partial and endurable, but also the overall cooperation is beautiful, both substantial and vivid, forming a perfect artistic whole.
The shadow puppets in shadow play are usually made of cow skin, donkey skin and sheepskin, which are processed into translucent and then engraved with color. The carving and painting techniques are exquisite and lifelike. The shadow puppet is generally divided into head, body, limbs and other parts, all of which are silhouettes, with helmets attached to the head, clothes on the body and limbs, and then baked and flattened with firebricks after painting. The props of shadow play are mainly shadow windows, commonly known as "Liangzi". Generally, they are 3 feet high, 5 feet wide, 4 feet high and 6 feet wide. They are made of white paper for single operation，similar to the role of the stage. The second one is an oil lamp, which is used to map the shadow people and perform actions.
In addition to the figure modeling, Shaanxi shadow puppet also has loong and phoenix, birds and animals, flowers, trees, insects and fish, mountain and stone gate scenery and pavilions, military accounts and weapons, furnishings, vehicles, boats, horses and sedans, city bridges and pagodas, etc. Its modeling is in harmony with Shaanxi shadow puppet figures, all of which have distinctive Shaanxi shadow art characteristics.