The Potala Palace is situated on the Mabri Mountain (Red Mountain) in the northwest of Lhasa, the capital of Tibet Autonomous Region. It is the most magnificent building in the world, which integrates palaces, castles and monasteries. It is also the largest and most complete ancient palace complex in Tibet. Potala Palace is built on Mount Yishan, which is the representative of Tibetan ancient architecture. The main building is divided into the White House and the Red Palace. The palace is more than 200 meters high with 13 floors in appearance and 9 floors in interior.
"Potalaka" or "Putuorega" are transliterations of Sanskrit "Potalaka", meaning "Buddhist Holy Land". At the beginning of the 7th century, Songzan Ganbu unified Tibet and established a powerful Tubo regime in Lhasa. In 641, he married the Tang Dynasty and built a palace on Mabri Mountain to marry Princess Wencheng. Because Songzan Ganbu regards Guanyin Bodhisattva as his own self-respect Buddha, he named the palace "Potala Palace" with the residence of Bodhisattva in the Buddhist Sutra.
The design and construction of the palace is based on the law of sunshine in the plateau area. The wall foundation is wide and strong. There are all kinds of tunnels and ventilation openings under the wall foundation. There are pillars, bucket arches, beams, rafters and so on in the house, which constitute brackets. The hard soil called "Alga" is used for paving and roofing. The roofs of halls and dormitories have skylights to facilitate daylighting. There are various carvings on the pillars and beams of the palace. The color wall pictures on the walls have an area of more than 2,500 square meters.
The Palace also collects Thangka painted on cotton, silk and satin, which is unique to Tibet, as well as cultural relics of past dynasties. The Potala Palace was listed as one of China's key cultural relics protection units in 1961 and was comprehensively constructed in 1989.