Uygur, whose national language is Uygur, belongs to the Turkic language family of Altaic language family. It is divided into three dialects: central dialect, Hetian dialect and Rob dialect. Uygurs mainly live in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, mainly distributed in the south of Tianshan Mountains. Oasis around Tarim Basin is the center of Uygur settlement, especially Kashgar Oasis, Hetian Oasis, Aksu River and Tarim River Basin. The Turpan Basin at the eastern end of Tianshan Mountains is also an area where Uygurs are concentrated.
Uygur dwelling is a unique Uygur architecture. Because Uygurs believe in Islam, their architecture is mostly influenced by Persia and Arabia, thus forming a unique Uygur architectural culture. Uygur dwellings are mostly flat-roofed and square in Central Asia, with mud-rammed walls and deep front corridors with guardrails. Planting flowers, fruit trees and grapes in the courtyard is a place for playing, singing, resting and dining. Uygur people like to set up tea sets in courtyards or corridors to receive guests.
Uygur traditional buildings have obvious architectural characteristics in arid areas. Much adobe bricks are used as building materials, little or no wood is used at all. The roof has many domes or flat roofs. The walls are thicker, arched doors and windows are few and small, and the skylights are larger, which are used for lighting. The house is built with earth pits for living, sleeping, firewalls and stoves for heating and cooking. The houses are mostly square courtyards, and the houses are mostly decorated with ethnic patterns. The door should not be opened to the west. Fruit trees and flowers should be planted in front of and behind the house. A grape trellis was erected in front of the house to form a balcony.
Although the structure of Xinjiang dwellings is mainly earth embryo wall, there are still some differences in structure with different climates in different regions. For example, in Changji and Yili areas of northern Xinjiang, where rainfall is high, the earth embryonic wall of residential buildings is mostly based on bricks and stones.